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abandoned places

Coal Breaker

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A Wintry Return to the St. Nicholas Coal Breaker

The St. Nicholas Coal Breaker, mid-demolition

The St. Nicholas Coal Breaker, mid-demolition

The Pennsylvania coal region was once dominated by 300 breakers–mammoth factories that crushed and cleaned raw coal into the consumable commodity that fueled the Industrial Revolution. Today, a few modern plants meet the drastically reduced demand for the stuff. Of the old glory days when coal was king, only St. Nicholas remains.

The structure once held the distinction of being the largest coal breaker in the world, and its sheer size must have played a part in staving off the wrecking ball for the last 50 years. But according to the president of Reading Anthracite, the building’s owner, the place has become an “eyesore and a liability,” and its total demolition is imminent. A state-funded study to determine the cost of transforming the ruins into a historical attraction came up with a figure in the tens of millions.

With exterior walls removed, skeletal views of the plant's interior come to light.

With exterior walls removed, skeletal views of the plant’s interior come to light.

The demolition won’t happen in one cataclysmic, cathartic crash. Rather, the breaker is being dismantled piece by piece, and mined for valuable scrap metal along the way. The process is expected to last into next year, having been underway since Fall 2014. With a bit more of it gone every day, visitation has picked up as folks have poured into the region for one last look. Security positioned outside aim to ensure they respect the No Trespassing signs.

I took my “one last look” in February on a day that was way too cold to spend in an abandoned factory. Much of the metal siding had already been removed, opening up dollhouse views of the interior. Inside, light poured into corners that had been pitch black before. Elsewhere, panoramas of the surrounding landscape spread wall to wall and floor to ceiling.   

After 50 years of abandonment, the old St. Nicholas Coal Breaker still inspires awe and commands respect.  The interior of the breaker is noticeably free of graffiti. Visitors have stuck to more temporary means of commemorating their presence, tracing initials in the grime of a dusty control panel or chalking them up on a blackboard, avoiding outright acts of vandalism out of reverence for the building. It’s impressive not only for its physical size and beauty of design, but for the time and place in American history that it represents, a coal industry that employed 180,000 workers and enabled a young country to rise to the forefront of the industrialized nations.  As St. Nick falls, little remains to tether that heritage to the here and now.

Otherworldly views of the frozen coal fields outside the breaker.

Otherworldly views of the frozen coal fields outside the breaker.

Coal dust mingles with snow drifts where the structure is open to the elements.

Coal dust mingles with snow drifts where the structure is open to the elements.

Names scrawled in a dusty control panel.

Names scrawled in a dusty control panel.

Abandoned cemetery in the woods.88 control room in the upper reaches of the breaker.

A control room in the upper reaches of the breaker.

Empty shelves in a maintenance room.

Empty shelves in a maintenance room.

Enormous wooden molds for replacement parts litter this floor.

Enormous wooden molds for replacement parts littered this floor.

St Nicholas Coal Breaker Demolition Will Ellis Abandoned NYC-7

Construction vehicles stalled in the snow, seen through an upper floor of the breaker.

The conveyor, where raw coal began its journey through the breaker's machinery.

The conveyor, where raw coal began its journey through the breaker’s machinery.

Salvaged machinery strewn about the rear of the breaker.

Machinery salvaged from the breaker prior to demolition.

For more history on the St. Nicholas Coal Breaker, see the original post:

St. Nicholas Coal Breaker

The St. Nicholas Coal Breaker, pictured in April 2014.



Beyond NYC: The St. Nicholas Coal Breaker

The daunting exterior of the St. Nicholas Coal Breaker.

The daunting exterior of the St. Nicholas Coal Breaker.

In rural eastern Pennsylvania, the coal-rich soil blackens boots, pantlegs, elbows, and faces, covering the densely packed row houses of Mahanoy City with a dingy gray patina. Coal production is still plugging along here, but the lifeblood of this industry town has slowed to a trickle since the 1920s, and the population has followed suit, thinning out to a quarter of its peak residency, back when a few belts of precious anthracite coal 400 million years in the making transformed this backwoods region into a flourishing center of industry. Around a bend on a back road, thousands of shattered window panes gape like jack o’ lantern teeth from the old St. Nicholas Coal Breaker, which has stood for 50 years as a haunting reminder of the town’s better days.

A control room was crawling with ladybugs, streaked with white bird droppings.

A control room was crawling with hundreds of ladybugs and streaked with white bird droppings.

The region’s coal deposits were first discovered in the late 1700s and the mining industry quickly grew to dominate the area. Soon, the onset of the industrial revolution spurred the region into a mining frenzy, fueled by an influx of European immigrants who settled in the years following the Civil War. The coal found in this corner of Pennsylvania was of the rare “anthracite” variety, which was prized for its purity, burning longer than other types. It’s no wonder they call it “black diamond.” On the grounds of St. Nicholas, where surface mining still goes on, the coal underfoot gives off an iridescent gleam.

A dark corridor on the plant's second floor gives way to views of the rail yard.

A dark corridor on the plant’s second floor gives way to views of the rail yard.

Work boots left behind in a water basin have been lovingly arranged by previous visitors to the

Old work boots have been lovingly arranged by previous visitors to the “boot room.”

The St. Nicholas Breaker was constructed in 1930 on the site of the St. Nicholas Colliery, which earned its name when it first opened on Christmas Day in 1861. That structure was torn down to make way for the new St. Nick, which was the largest coal breaker in the world at the time. With 3,800 tons of steel and a mile and a half of conveyer lines, the monumental machine was capable of churning out 12,500 tons of coal in a single workday.

Raw coal was imported from a number of local mines, where the material was cleaned and crushed before being shipped to St. Nicholas’ storage yards. Here, it awaited an eight story journey up a vertiginous conveyor belt, where it would commence its wild ride through the breaker. It took 12 minutes for the material to pass through the many industrial processes housed inside the plant to prepare the coal for consumption. Demand steadily decreased though the 1950s as alternative energy sources grew in popularity, and the breaker closed down in 1963 after thirty years of production. Ten years later, it was replaced by a modern facility located a half-mile away.

Gigantic

Enormous “hoppers” funneled coal through the breaker.

The breaker was constructed with 28,000 tons of steel.

The factory was constructed with 3,800 tons of steel.

Near the top of the breaker my accomplice called the

Wooden molds left on the top floor were used to manufacture new parts for the plant.

A dimly lit control room on the top floor where the coal entered the complex through a gigantic conveyor.

A dimly lit control room is situated near the end of a gigantic conveyor.

Fifty years on, the interior is surprisingly untouched and structurally sound, with very little graffiti to speak of. Its construction is dizzyingly complex, leaving the untrained eye to marvel at its design without fully comprehending the vast labyrinth of tightly packed machinery. Sadly, this awe-inspiring piece of history may not be long for this world. Partial demolition has already claimed a hefty wing of the structure, and it’s unclear how long the rest of the breaker will remain standing.

Coal dust covers the interior, coating every surface with soot.

Coal dust covers the interior of the St. Nicholas Breaker in Mahanoy City, PA.

When the wind bellows through the St. Nicholas Breaker, ancient drifts of airborne coal dust sting the eyes, clog the throat, and powder the hair, catching the light to lovely effect, if you can stomach the black lung… Back home in Brooklyn I wasted no time getting into the shower to scrub off the day’s dirt, pondering the depth of history in all things. Fossilized remains of Paleozoic plant life pooled at my feet in black clouds, wrenched from the bowels of the earth only to languish in an abandoned factory for half a century and wind up here, spiralling down my bathtub drain to new frontiers. Later that night, I reached for a tissue and winced as a fresh deposit of grade-A anthracite coal expelled from my nose in a thick black mucus. It seemed that a part of St. Nicholas would stay with me forever.

As the light lengthens toward day's end, blowing soot is illuminated by a shaft of light near a giant wheel.

A shaft of light materializes as dust drifts through the breaker at day’s end.

The remains of the St. Nicholas Coal Breaker.

The remains of the St. Nicholas Coal Breaker.

St. Nick was located within the southern section of Pennsylvania's anthracite coal region.

St. Nick was located within the southern section of Pennsylvania’s anthracite coal region.

The St. Nicholas Coal Breaker in Mahanoy City, PA

The St. Nicholas Coal Breaker photographed in 1971.



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